Skin treated with tannins is called leather.
Tannins have been used for several thousand years, especially in China. Examples of natural tannins are tannic acid , myrobalans , and quebracho. Examples of synthetic tannins are formaldehyde , glutaraldehyde , and glycolic acid. Soluble in water or ethanol. Insoluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide, benzene. Precipitates gelatin. Ann Hagerman, Tannin Handbook, at Website provides extensive information on tannin chemistry and analysis.
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It is reported that, the presence of high-CT in the legumes adversely affect the nutrients in the plant and impairs the digestibility upon consumption by animals. Winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. One of the reasons for its underutilization is due to the presence of CT.
Transcriptome sequencing of leaves of two diverse CT-containing lines of P. Based on the similarity searches against gene ontology GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes KEGG database revealed contigs involved in different pathways. This study along with its findings will be helpful in providing information for functional and comparative genomic analysis of condensed tannin biosynthesis in this plant in specific and legumes in general.
There are several underutilized and neglected legumes with great potentiality in terms of its nutritional values. One among them is Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. This plant has exceptionally high protein content and has been suggested as a potential food source for the tropics 2.
Almost all parts of this plant like: leaves, pods, seeds and tubers are edible and rich in protein. Winged bean is a tropical legume and is listed under unutilized or under-exploited category 4. Apart from its nutritional value, P. Condensed tannin CT is reported to be present in the seeds of P. Modifications such as hydroxylation, methylation, acylation and glycosylation result in various kinds of flavonoid colours 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , CTs are synthesized via phenylpropanoid and the flavonoid pathways and are widespread in the plant kingdom.
It confers protection against predation and pathogen attack 14 , They contribute to the bitter flavor and astringency and have a significant influence on mouth feel But, till date, there are very few reports on condensed tannins CTs and its biosynthesis in any of the underutilized plant. The herbages reported to contain CT include sainfonin Onobrychis viciifolia , horse foot trefoil Trifolium arvense L. However, the present study focuses on the role of various genes or contigs in the biosynthesis of CT in this underutilized P. The present study and its finding will open up new avenue for understanding the molecular basis of biosynthesis of CT for further improvement of this crop.
In recent years, several studies have successfully reported the generation of transcriptome data for gene discovery in non-model plants for which no reference genome sequences are available Due to the availability of quick, low cost sequencing and high quality annotation and assembly tools, it has become possible to analyze and understand the genome of non-model plants. As a non-model legume P. Condensed tannin is considered as an anti-nutrient. Effective and optimum reduction of CT concentration from the plants will promote the lesser-known underutilized legumes for further consumption where there is an ever increasing demand for food and nutrition security.
So, in order to genetically-improve this plant, it is needed to identify and understand the metabolic pathways and the underlying factors or genes regulating the biosynthesis of CT. These are packed in membrane-bound shuttles, it has been suggested that these shuttles agglomerate into tannin accretions. Further, the tannosomes travel from the plastid towards the vacuole in multiple membrane-bound shuttles. So, leaf is the centre of condensed tannin biosynthesis in plants.
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So, the leaf-tissues of P. Recently, de novo assembled trancriptomes of four underutilized legumes namely: Lablab purpurea Malwi origin , Lathyrus sativus Indian origin , Psophocrapus tetragonolobus Nigeria origin and Vigna subterranean Africa origin were carried out and SSRs out of 33, genes and 49, contigs of P. It was carried out on Roche sequencing platform. But, the present study focuses on the biochemical screening of P.
This is the first report of transcriptome study of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway responsible for condensed tannin biosynthesis in P. The study may pave path for further manipulation of genes or transcription factors for reducing the content of condensed tannin in the plant to make it more acceptable. Quantitative estimation of CT through vanillin assay was carried out among accessions of P. The range of CT varies between 3. Histochemical staining of the plant-parts with dimethylamminocinnamaldehyde DMACA provided a clear picture of its deposition in different tissues as it developed a deep-blue colour when stained with DMACA Fig.
Flavanol catechin is inferred to be the basic monomeric unit as per the analysis of the plant-tissues on HPLC-platform and reported the presence of pelargonidin 0. E Flavonoid pathway showing the major compound and gene responsible for condensed tannin biosynthesis. Paired-end sequencing-by-synthesis SBS yielded raw data Contig generation was carried out using Oases In both cases, average contig lengths were of About — bp size contigs were highest in number contigs followed by contigs of — bp size.
The contigs from both P. A total of contigs were generated after clustering and they were further annotated with Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max and Lycopersicum esculentum Supplementary Table 2. A total of contigs were annotated with Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max and Lycopersicum esculentum and , and contigs were uniquely annotated Fig. A total of contigs were annotated and contigs were unannotated. A Count of Contigs vs Lengh bp of Contig B venn diagram representing number of transcript data sets unique and shared data set from G.
In order to assign functions, contigs from HCTW and LCTW were compared against the NR protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana , some members of solanaceae and fabaceae family available at uniport database using blastx algorithm. A total of contigs were found to be differentially expressed between the HCTW and LCTW, among them contigs were up regulated and contigs were down-regulated Supplementary Table 3.
Based on the sequence homology, sequences from HCTW and sequences from LCTW were characterized into 45 functional groups under three main categories i. LCTW genotype of P. It had also been observed that, some genes related to unknown secondary metabolite biosynthesis like: sulphur containing glucosinolate genes were down regulated in LCTW line as compared to HCTW line. From these observations, it can be inferred that, there is a cross-talk of different pathways in the biosynthesis of condensed tannin.
But, the present study relates its study to phenylpropanoid pathway and the expression of the genes corresponding to this pathway. Among all the de novo assembled contigs fifteen different types of transcription factor TF families were reported. Whereas, pentanucleotide repeats were minimum i. Precursor molecules for condensed tannin biosynthesis were reported to be derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway.
Uniport annotations against members of solanaceae family were used to identify genes encoding enzymes involved in different steps of phenylpropanoid and flavonoid backbone biosynthesis in P. A3GT gene which is involved in glycosylation of anthocyanidin compounds are responsible for biosynthesis of cyanidin compounds in plant 22 , this was also reported to have higher expression in HCTW plant.
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The gene analyses showed that, HCTW line have higher level of polymerization properties of condensed tannin. For conformation and validation of differential expression of contrasting lines of P. In the HCTW line, mostly the genes of flavonoid biosynthesis were down regulated.
In this study, we explored the genes and TFs responsible for condensed tannin biosynthesis in the underutilized P. Each contrasting-line expressed and accumulated varying concentration of condensed tannin. Proanthocyanidins are major group of tannin which are deposited in seed and leaves of plants. Presence of high content of tannins in the presently studied wild legume seeds might be due to the metabolism of monomeric polyphenolic compounds catechin or polymerization of existing phenolic compounds during development and maturation According to Serrano 25 the estimated amount of condensed tannin for daily intake for a person is There are a lot of epidemiological data suggesting, tannin intakes which may prevent the onset of many chronic diseases.
But, in case of winged bean HCTW plant seeds contained 3. If people consume it as a source of protein it will cause indigestion. Optimum intake of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins PAs are considered as functional ingredients in nutritional supplements and therefore, they are presently attracting more attention. Genome sequences of legume species of L. RNA-Seq technique has a lots of application for analyzing a transcript, including exploration of different biological processes of different phenotype of plant, RNA-seq technology has previously been used to characterize the transcriptomes of a number of plant species, including pea and soybean 29 , Our experiment was designed in a manner to find the genes responsible for condensed tannin biosynthesis in leaf through Illumina sequencing.
Illumina sequencing de novo sequencing platform has been mostly used for transcriptome analysis of plants which has no previous reference genome 31 , 32 , Result of winged bean data and the lengths of contigs generated using Illumina platform is similar to Vigna radiata and Pisum sativum transcriptomes.
TRINITY assembler generated high number of primary assembled contigs from recently duplicated genes which lead to the generation of similar contigs Comparable results were observed for the winged bean transcriptome in similarity searches against other legumes BLAST analysis showed a highest level of similarity to sequences of Glycine max , followed by Ricinus communis, Vitis vinifera and Populous trichocarpa.
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Winged bean, Vigna radiata and soybean all belongs to the tropical warm-season legume, and may be mutually more closely related, within the Papilionoideae Gene ontology GO is a bioinformatics-based gene functional classification system offering an updated and a strictly defined concept to comprehensively describe the properties of genes and gene products of an organism Our transcriptome data showed similar result with winged bean recent transcriptome data i. Kinase activity and DNA binding had more number of contigs in winged bean transcriptome showing the similar result of HCTW line of winged bean.
In case of KEGG analysis, well-represented pathways in the winged bean transcriptome included those involved in metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, flavonoid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. All the major genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified and majority of them were present in HCTW lines of winged bean as compared to LCTW plant. Vigna radiata and Pisum sativum transcriptome data showed similar KEGG profile and had similar result with our data 34 , Transcription factor families were varied in both type of plant-lines.
Other studies showed that this TF family is most regulating factor for flavonoid biosynthesis 41 , Simple sequence repeats SSRs marker was frequently used for diverse genetic analysis by plant breeders due to co-dominant and highly polymorphic nature Trinucleotide repeats were more predominantly present in our data like other legumes medicago trancatula and Arachis hypogaea 44 , Learn more.
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