- Plain Film X-Ray - Principles - Interpretation - TeachMeAnatomy
- [X-ray anatomy of the cranium of the 5-year-old child visible on the orthopantomogram].
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Updating Results. The team recorded high-resolution X-ray movies showing how the burning explosives morphed from solid to gas. Heat conduction drove the burning of an explosive called TATB. But the burning of an explosive known as HMX was spurred by a combination of heat conduction and the movement of hot gas, causing faster burning. Data generated by the technique could be used to manipulate the combustion rate in explosions, the authors say. Immune cells called T cells pictured; artificially coloured multiply after vaccination in the middle of the day.
The biological clock ticking within some immune cells can influence how well they respond to vaccination, a study in mice has found. Cells have molecular clocks that dial gene activity up or down in a daily cycle. These clocks can affect immunity. The team found that vaccination stimulated the production of more CD8 T cells during the middle of the day than at other time points.
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Genes associated with the activation of these T cells were also expressed at higher levels at the middle of the day than at night. Mice that lacked the key clock gene Bmal1 within CD8 T cells did not show this rhythmic response. Natl Acad. USA DNA tags could help scientists to study ion channels yellow , which allow specific ions to pass through the membrane of nerve cells green. But such equipment is not very useful for biologists, because biological structures are complex and easily damaged by microscope probes. Then a fluorescent-dye particle attached to the label glows under illumination.
They also used the technique to tag protein filaments called microtubules inside cultured cells. The tags could be used to ferry activating molecules to cell-membrane proteins called ion channels, which are crucial for transmitting nerve-cell messages. This would reveal the workings of an individual channel in a cell, the authors say. Nature Chem. As the pressurized carbon dioxide in the neck of the bottle is released, the gas cools and condenses, forming a cloudy jet. The footage revealed that characteristic shock waves called Mach disks form in the CO 2 jet — indicating that the gas is travelling faster than the speed of sound.
Mach disks are also seen in the exhaust trails of fighter jets. Credit: Roman Uchytel. A weird species of ancient Australian marsupial had enormous claws, and elbows that were almost completely rigid — a characteristic found in no other mammal, living or extinct. Large marsupials called palorchestids thrived in Australia for some 25 million years, until as recently as 50, years ago. Scientists long mistook them for ancient kangaroos, but eventually realized that these animals were more similar to horse-sized versions of wombats.
Plain Film X-Ray - Principles - Interpretation - TeachMeAnatomy
In an attempt to describe the appearance and movements of these little-known marsupials, Hazel Richards at Monash University in Clayton, Australia, and her colleagues examined the limbs of more than 60 fossil specimens from 3 species. The authors hope to learn more about palorchestids as more fossils are unearthed or identified in museum collections.
PLoS One The drizzle lasted for more than 7. The scientists used lasers and radar to probe Antarctic clouds.
[X-ray anatomy of the cranium of the 5-year-old child visible on the orthopantomogram].
In very cold clouds, water usually freezes around dust particles to form ice. The authors suggest that, in this case, there were probably too few dust particles in the air for ice to form. As a result, the water remained liquid as it fell through the sky. Supercooled drizzle has been spotted at a few other places on the planet. But it might be widespread over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, because those regions have just the right combination of low dust levels and chilly temperatures.
A male honeybee mates with a queen in mid-air. The semen that a male transfers to a female degrades her vision — and with it her ability to mate with other males. Evolutionary theory predicts that a male should attempt to prevent queens from mating with other males.
e-Anatomy the interactive atlas of human anatomy
In keeping with that prediction, research has suggested that natural insemination alters the activity of vision-related genes in female bees. To determine the consequences of such changes, Joanito Liberti at the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues artificially inseminated queen bees and found that they became less responsive to light and were more likely to get lost on mating flights than were queens given saline. Inseminated queens also tended to leave their hives on mating flights two days earlier than control queens.
The researchers propose that this early departure was an attempt to compensate for their poor vision. Workers inspect drugs at a factory in Wuhan, China. A chemical reaction used in drug manufacturing around the world has had an eco-friendly makeover.
A widely used industrial reaction that produces toxic waste could be replaced by one that yields only one by-product — water. Since , that activation has often been carried out by a process called the Mitsunobu reaction, which requires two activating chemicals — one explosive — and generates two by-products, one of which is toxic.
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Seeking a greener version of the Mitsunobu reaction, Ross Denton at the University of Nottingham, UK, and his colleagues used a compound called a phosphine oxide as a catalyst to jump-start the reaction. The researchers say that their catalyst provides a more environmentally friendly way of making both drugs and agrochemicals. Science Circular features on Titan resemble earthly lakes excavated by sub-surface explosions. Liquid methane and ethane collect in low-lying basins on Titan, creating lakes and seas — features that are rare in the Solar System.
A similar process causes sinkholes to appear in limestone on Earth. The scientists noticed that many of these lakes have tall rims that rise steeply from the surrounding terrain. On Earth, similar rims are seen on craters that form when water and magma interact underground and then explode through the surface.