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The Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. The latter knew, so runs the legend, that Zeus had ravished Aegina , the daughter of Asopus, but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus. Corinth had been a backwater in 8th-century Greece. In BC a traditional date , an aristocratic revolution ousted the Bacchiad kings, when the royal clan of Bacchiadae, numbering perhaps a couple of hundred adult males, took power from the last king Telestes.
During Bacchiad rule from to BC, Corinth became a unified state.
Apollo and the Archaic Temple at Corinth
Large scale public buildings and monuments were constructed at this time. By BC, Corinth emerged as a highly advanced Greek city with at least 5, people. Aristotle tells the story of Philolaus of Corinth, a Bacchiad who was a lawgiver at Thebes. He became the lover of Diocles , the winner of the Olympic games. They both lived for the rest of their lives in Thebes.
Their tombs were built near one another and Philolaus' tomb points toward the Corinthian country, while Diocles' faces away. In BC, polemarch Cypselus obtained an oracle from Delphi which he interpreted to mean that he should rule the city. From — BC, he removed the Bacchiad aristocracy from power and ruled for three decades. He built temples to Apollo and Poseidon in BC. Aristotle reports that "Cypselus of Corinth had made a vow that if he became master of the city, he would offer to Zeus the entire property of the Corinthians.
Accordingly, he commanded them to make a return of their possessions. The city sent forth colonists to found new settlements in the 7th century BC, under the rule of Cypselus r. Corinth was also one of the nine Greek sponsor-cities to found the colony of Naukratis in Ancient Egypt , founded to accommodate the increasing trade volume between the Greek world and pharaonic Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichus I of the 26th dynasty.
Greek city-states tended to overthrow their traditional hereditary priest-kings , with increased wealth and more complicated trade relations and social structures. Corinth led the way as the richest archaic polis. Often the tyrants calmed the populace by upholding existing laws and customs and strict conservatism in cult practices.
A cult of personality naturally substituted for the divine right of the former legitimate royal house, as it did in Renaissance Italy. He was a member of the Bacchiad kin and usurped the power in archaic matriarchal right of his mother. However, the newborn smiled at each of the men sent to kill him, and none of them could bear to strike the blow. Labda then hid the baby in a chest,  and the men could not find him once they had composed themselves and returned to kill him.
Compare the infancy of Perseus. The ivory chest of Cypselus was richly worked and adorned with gold. It was a votive offering at Olympia , where Pausanias gave it a minute description in his 2nd century AD travel guide.
Acropoils & other hellenic world monuments
Cypselus grew up and fulfilled the prophecy. Corinth had been involved in wars with Argos and Corcyra , and the Corinthians were unhappy with their rulers. Cypselus was polemarch at the time around BC , the archon in charge of the military, and he used his influence with the soldiers to expel the king. He also expelled his other enemies, but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece. He also increased trade with the colonies in Italy and Sicily.
He was a popular ruler and, unlike many later tyrants, he did not need a bodyguard and died a natural death. He ruled for thirty years and was succeeded as tyrant by his son Periander in BC.
Periander brought Corcyra to order in BC. Periander was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. He was the first to attempt to cut across the Isthmus to create a seaway between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulfs. He abandoned the venture due to the extreme technical difficulties that he met, but he created the Diolkos instead a stone-built overland ramp. The era of the Cypselids was Corinth's golden age, and ended with Periander's nephew Psammetichus , named after the hellenophile Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus I see above. Periander killed his wife Melissa.
His son Lycophron found out and shunned him, and Periander exiled the son to Corcyra. The Corcyreans heard about this and killed Lycophron to keep away Periander. Just before the classical period, according to Thucydides , the Corinthians developed the trireme which became the standard warship of the Mediterranean until the late Roman period. Corinth fought the first naval battle on record against the Hellenic city of Corcyra. In classical times , Corinth rivaled Athens and Thebes in wealth, based on the Isthmian traffic and trade.
Until the mid-6th century, Corinth was a major exporter of black-figure pottery to city-states around the Greek world, later losing their market to Athenian artisans. In classical times and earlier, Corinth had a temple of Aphrodite , the goddess of love, employing some thousand hetairas temple prostitutes see also Temple prostitution in Corinth. The city was renowned for these temple prostitutes, who served the wealthy merchants and the powerful officials who frequented the city. Lais , the most famous hetaira, was said to charge tremendous fees for her extraordinary favours.
Referring to the city's exorbitant luxuries, Horace is quoted as saying: " non licet omnibus adire Corinthum " "Not everyone is able to go to Corinth". Corinth was also the host of the Isthmian Games. During this era, Corinthians developed the Corinthian order , the third main style of classical architecture after the Doric and the Ionic. The Corinthian order was the most complicated of the three, showing the city's wealth and the luxurious lifestyle, while the Doric order evoked the rigorous simplicity of the Spartans, and the Ionic was a harmonious balance between these two following the cosmopolitan philosophy of Ionians like the Athenians.
The city had two main ports: to the west on the Corinthian Gulf lay Lechaion , which connected the city to its western colonies Greek: apoikiai and Magna Graecia , while to the east on the Saronic Gulf the port of Kenchreai served the ships coming from Athens, Ionia , Cyprus and the Levant. Both ports had docks for the city's large navy. During the years — BC, the Conference at the Isthmus of Corinth following conferences at Sparta established the Hellenic League, which allied under the Spartans to fight the war against Persia.
The city was a major participant in the Persian Wars, sending soldiers to defend Thermopylae  and supplying forty warships for the Battle of Salamis under Adeimantos and 5, hoplites with their characteristic Corinthian helmets [ citation needed ] in the following Battle of Plataea. The Greeks obtained the surrender of Theban collaborators with the Persians. Pausanias took them to Corinth where they were put to death. Following the Battle of Thermopylae and the subsequent Battle of Artemisium , which resulted in the captures of Euboea , Boeotia , and Attica ,  the Greco-Persian Wars were at a point where now most of mainland Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun.
Herodotus, who was believed to dislike the Corinthians, mentions that they were considered the second best fighters after the Athenians. Three Syracusan generals went to Corinth seeking allies against Athenian invasion. They also sent a group to Lacedaemon to rouse Spartan assistance. After a convincing speech from the Athenian renegade Alcibiades , the Spartans agreed to send troops to aid the Sicilians. Demosthenes later used this history in a plea for magnanimous statecraft, noting that the Athenians of yesteryear had had good reason to hate the Corinthians and Thebans for their conduct during the Peloponnesian War,  yet they bore no malice whatever.
As an example of facing danger with knowledge, Aristotle used the example of the Argives who were forced to confront the Spartans in the battle at the Long Walls of Corinth in BC. This failed when Corinth, Phlius and Epidaurus allied with Boeotia. Demosthenes recounts how Athens had fought the Spartans in a great battle near Corinth. The city decided not to harbor the defeated Athenian troops, but instead sent heralds to the Spartans.
But the Corinthian heralds opened their gates to the defeated Athenians and saved them. These conflicts further weakened the city-states of the Peloponnese and set the stage for the conquests of Philip II of Macedon. Demosthenes warned that Philip's military force exceeded that of Athens and thus they must develop a tactical advantage. He noted the importance of a citizen army as opposed to a mercenary force, citing the mercenaries of Corinth who fought alongside citizens and defeated the Spartans. Philip was named hegemon of the League.
During the Hellenistic period , Corinth, like many other Greece cities, never quite had autonomy. Under the successors of Alexander the Great , Greece was contested ground, and Corinth was occasionally the battleground for contests between the Antigonids , based in Macedonia , and other Hellenistic powers. However, the city was recaptured by Demetrius in BC. Corinth remained under Antigonid control for half a century.
The Macedonian rule was short-lived. In BC, Aratus of Sicyon , using a surprise attack, captured the fortress of Acrocorinth and convinced the citizenship to join the Achaean League. Thanks to an alliance agreement with Aratus, the Macedonians recovered Corinth once again in BC; but, after the Roman intervention in BC, the city was permanently brought into the Achaean League. Under the leadership of Philopoemen , the Achaeans went on to take control of the entire Peloponnesus and made Corinth the capital of their confederation.
In BC, Rome declared war on the Achaean League and, after victories over league forces in the summer of that year, the Romans under Lucius Mummius besieged and captured Corinth. When he entered the city, Mummius killed all the men and sold the women and children into slavery before burning the city, for which he was given the cognomen Achaicus as the conqueror of the Achaean League. At this time, an amphitheatre was built. It had a large  mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. The city was an important locus for activities of the imperial cult , and both Temple E  and the Julian Basilica  have been suggested as locations of imperial cult activity.
Corinth is mentioned many times in the New Testament , largely in connection with Paul the Apostle's mission there , testifying to the success of Caesar's refounding of the city. Traditionally, the Church of Corinth is believed to have been founded by Paul, making it an Apostolic See. The apostle Paul first visited the city in AD 49 or 50, when Gallio , the brother of Seneca , was proconsul of Achaia. Here he first became acquainted with Priscilla and Aquila with whom he later traveled. They worked here together as tentmakers from which is derived the modern Christian concept of tentmaking , and regularly attended the synagogue.
This event provides a secure date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles within the Bible. Silas and Timothy rejoined Paul here, having last seen him in Berea Acts Acts suggests that Jewish refusal to accept his preaching here led Paul to resolve no longer to speak in the synagogues where he travelled: 'From now on I will go to the Gentiles'.
Paul wrote at least two epistles to the Christian church, the First Epistle to the Corinthians written from Ephesus and the Second Epistle to the Corinthians written from Macedonia. The first Epistle occasionally reflects the conflict between the thriving Christian church and the surrounding community. Some scholars believe that Paul visited Corinth for an intermediate "painful visit" see 2 Corinthians between the first and second epistles.
After writing the second epistle, he stayed in Corinth for about three months [Acts ] in the late winter, and there wrote his Epistle to the Romans. Based on clues within the Corinthian epistles themselves, some scholars have concluded that Paul wrote possibly as many as four epistles to the church at Corinth. The lost letters would probably represent the very first letter that Paul wrote to the Corinthians and the third one, and so the First and Second Letters of the canon would be the second and the fourth if four were written. Many scholars think that the third one known as the "letter of the tears"; see 2 Cor is included inside the canonical Second Epistle to the Corinthians it would be chapters 10— This letter is not to be confused with the so-called " Third Epistle to the Corinthians ", which is a pseudepigraphical letter written many years after the death of Paul.
There are speculations from Bruce Winter that the Jewish access to their own food in Corinth was disallowed after Paul's departure. By this theory, Paul had instructed Christian Gentiles to maintain Jewish access to food according to their dietary laws.
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This speculation is contested by Rudolph who argues that there is no evidence to support this theory. He instead argues that Paul had desired the Gentile Christians to remain assimilated within their Gentile communities and not adopt Jewish dietary procedures. The city was largely destroyed in the earthquakes of AD and AD , followed by Alaric 's invasion in The city was rebuilt after these disasters on a monumental scale, but covered a much smaller area than previously.
Four churches were located in the city proper, another on the citadel of the Acrocorinth , and a monumental basilica at the port of Lechaion. During the reign of Emperor Justinian I — , a large stone wall was erected from the Saronic to the Corinthian gulfs, protecting the city and the Peloponnese peninsula from the barbarian invasions from the north.
Corinth declined from the 6th century on, and may even have fallen to barbarian invaders in the early 7th century. The main settlement moved from the lower city to the Acrocorinth. Despite its becoming the capital of the theme of Hellas and, after c. In November , an earthquake in Corinth killed an estimated 45, The wealth of the city attracted the attention of the Sicilian Normans under Roger of Sicily , who plundered it in , carrying off many captives, most notably silk weavers.
The city never fully recovered from the Norman sack. Following the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade , a group of Crusaders under the French knights William of Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin carried out the conquest of the Peloponnese. The Corinthians resisted the Frankish conquest from their stronghold in Acrocorinth, under the command of Leo Sgouros , from until In Leo Sgouros killed himself by riding off the top of Acrocorinth, but resistance continued for two more years. Finally, in the fortress fell to the Crusaders, and Corinth became a full part of the Principality of Achaea , governed by the Villehardouins from their capital in Andravida in Elis.
Corinth was the last significant town of Achaea on its northern borders with another crusader state, the Duchy of Athens. The Ottomans captured the city in In , five years after the final Fall of Constantinople , the Turks of the Ottoman Empire conquered the city and its mighty castle. The Venetians captured the city in during the Morean War , and it remained under Venetian control until the Ottomans retook the city in Corinth was the capital of the Mora Eyalet in — and then again a sanjak capital until During the Greek War of Independence , — the city was destroyed by the Ottoman forces.
In , the site was considered among the candidates for the new capital city of the recently founded Kingdom of Greece , due to its historical significance and strategic position. Nafplio was chosen initially, then Athens. Acrocorinthis , the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock that was continuously occupied from archaic times to the early 19th century.
Monuments In The Lower Agora And North Of The Archaic Temple (Corinth Vol. 1.3)
The city's archaic acropolis, already an easily defensible position due to its geomorphology, was further heavily fortified during the Byzantine Empire as it became the seat of the strategos of the Thema of Hellas. With its secure water supply, Acrocorinth's fortress was used as the last line of defense in southern Greece because it commanded the isthmus of Corinth , repelling foes from entry into the Peloponnesian peninsula.
Three circuit walls formed the man-made defense of the hill. The highest peak on the site was home to a temple to Aphrodite which was Christianized as a church, and then became a mosque. Long Description Olympia bears exceptional testimony to the ancient civilizations of Peloponnesos, in terms of both duration and quality. The first human settlements date back to prehistoric times; the Middle Helladic and Mycenaean periods are represented at the site. Consecrated to Zeus, the Altis is a major sanctuary from the 10th century BC to the 4th century AD corresponding to the zenith of Olympia.
A Christian settlement survived for a time at the site of the ruins of the great Pan-Hellenic sanctuary. In north-western Peloponnesos the archaeological site of Olympia at the foot of the Kronion Hill stretches over a triangular alluvial terrace at the confluence of the Alpheios and the Kladeos. In this area of very ancient settlement, religious centres of worship succeeded one another during the Hellenic period: those to Kronos, Gala, and other Chtonian divinities, those to Pelops, the hero who gave his name to Peloponnesus, and those to Hippodamia, whose hand Pelops won in a chariot race against Oenomaos, her father.
Olympia became a centre of worship to Zeus in the 10th century BC. The name Olympia, which described the wooded valley where the site was located, referred to the sacred mountain of Olympus, the habitual residence of Zeus. Placed under the protection of the cities of Pisa and later Elis, the Olympian sanctuary experienced an enormous renown in the 8th century BC, with the Pan-Hellenic games which were held every fifth year.
Beginning in BC, the games regularly brought together athletes. Later, orators, poets and musicians also came to celebrate Zeus. The sanctuary contained one of the highest concentrations of masterpieces of the ancient Mediterranean world. Many have been lost, such as the Olympian Zeus, a gold-and- ivory cult statue which was probably executed by Pheidias between and BC. Other masterpieces have survived: large votive Archaic bronzes, sculptures of tympanums and metopes from the Temple of Zeus, and the Hermes by Praxiteles, found along with its base in the Temple of Hera.
To the north stood a row of Archaic Treasuries 6thand 5th centuries BC , several of which were built by residents of the distant Greek colonies of Selinus, Cyrene, and Byzantium. More recent structures - the Metroon and the Echo Colonnade 4th century BC , the Philippeion in honour of the victory at Chaeronea in BC, and the Exedra of Herodes Atticus AD - gradually added to the complex topography of the sanctuary whose precinct overlooks an area of prehistoric settlements. The density of buildings outside the Altis is even greater: the built-up zone combines official housing and assembly rooms for the clergy and administrators, sports structures, thermal baths, and lodgings and accommodation for guests.
To the north- west the Palaestra and the Gymnasium 3rd century BC , and to the east the old Stadium, rebuilt during the 1st century AD and remodelled in , highlight a landscape of ruins of majestic beauty. Flooding of the Alpheios carried the Hippodrome away: only its original location is known.
The influence of the monuments of Olympia has been considerable. To mention just three examples, the Temple of Zeus, built in BC, is a model of the great Doric temples constructed in southern Italy and in Sicily during the 5th century BC; the Nike by Paeonios, sculptured around BC, so lastingly influenced iconographic allegories of Victory that neoclassical art of the 19th century is still much indebted to it; with reference to the Roman period, the Olympian Palaestra is undoubtedly the typological reference made by Vitruvius in De Architectura.
Olympia is directly and tangibly associated with an event of universal significance. The Olympic Games were celebrated regularly beginning in BC. The Olympiad - the four-year period between two successive celebrations falling every fifth year - became a chronological measurement and system of dating used in the Greek world. The significance of the Olympic Games demonstrates the lofty ideals of Hellenic humanism: peaceful and loyal competition between free and equal men, who are prepared to surpass their physical strength in a supreme effort, with their only ambition being the symbolic reward of an olive wreath.
Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns The archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns are the imposing ruins of the two greatest cities of the Mycenaean civilization, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean world from the 15th to the 12th century B. These two cities are indissolubly linked to the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , which have influenced European art and literature for more than three millennia. Justification for Inscription Criterion i : The architecture and design of Mycenae and Tiryns, such as the Lion Gate and the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae and the walls of Tiryns, are outstanding examples of human creative genius.
Criterion ii : The Mycenaean civilization, as exemplified by Mycenae and Tiryns, had a profound effect on the development of classical Greek architecture and urban design, and consequently also on contemporary cultural forms. Criteria iii and iv : Mycenae and Tiryns represent the apogee of the Mycenaean civilization, which laid the foundations for the evolution of later European cultures. Criterion vi : Mycenae and Tiryns are indissolubly linked with the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the influence of which upon European literature and the arts has been profound for more than three millennia.
Long Description Mycenae and Tiryns represent the apogee of the Mycenaean civilization, which laid the foundations for the evolution of later European cultures, including classical Greek architecture and urban design, and consequently also on contemporary cultural forms. Moreover, the two sites are indissolubly linked with the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the influence of which upon European literature and the arts has been profound for more than three millennia.
It was essentially a continuation of the Middle Helladic culture, transformed by Minoan influences from Crete. Knowledge of its two earlier periods I c. Towards the end of Period II more elaborate tomb types developed - large chamber tombs for families and beehive-shaped tholos tombs for royalty. Towards the end of this period a script, known as Linear B, came into use; the language used has been shown to be an early form of Greek, confirming that the Mycenaeans were Greek speakers of Indo-European origin.
The political structure was that of an autocratic monarchy, the ruler of which was known as the wanax, who administered his territory by means of a hierarchical structure of officials. There was a special class of priests and priestesses. The people were organized in an elaborate class system, and slavery was widely practised.
The site of Mycenae is known from excavations to have been occupied from the Neolithic period c. The Palace was constructed on the summit of the hill and surrounded by massive cyclopean walls in three stages c. In the final stage the underground reservoir was also fortified.
A series of tholos tombs were built on the southern and south-western slopes of the hill during the Mycenaean period: the so-called Tomb of Aegisthos c. Four large buildings, believed to have been royal workshops, were built in the 13th century BC in the vicinity of Grave Circle B. The palace was abandoned at the end of the 12th century BC and a number of buildings were damaged by fire. However, the site continued to be occupied until BC, when it was conquered by Argos and its inhabitants were expelled.
The top of the hill was levelled at this time for the construction of an Archaic temple. The site was reoccupied briefly in the Hellenistic period, when another temple was built and a theatre constructed over the Tomb of Clytemnestra. By the time the Greek traveller Pausanias visited Mycenae in the 2nd century AD it had been completely abandoned for many years. As at Mycenae, the earliest human occupation known at Tiryns is from the Neolithic period.
The oldest architectural remains, on the Upper Citadel, are from the early Bronze Age c. The level of this area was built up in the middle Bronze Age BC to accommodate new buildings. Tiryns flourished during the Mycenaean period. A new fortified palace complex was constructed in the 14th century BC. The defences were extended in the early 13th century BC, and the Lower Citadel was also fortified. Following earthquake and fire damage, the site was reconstructed, the new defences enclosing an area of 20 ha; the extra-mural settlement covered more than 25 ha.
The fate of Tiryns with the decline of the Mycenaean civilization paralleled that of Mycenae. It was not finally abandoned until the deportation of the 5th century BC, by which time it had lost its power and influence. Towards the end of this period a script, known as Linear B, came into use; the language used has been shown to be an early form of Greek, confirming that the Mycenaeans were Greek speakers of Indo- European origin. The political structure was that of an autocratic monarchy, the ruler of which was known as the wanax, who administered his territory by means of an hierarchical structure of officials.
The site of Mycenae is known from excavations to have been occupied from the Neolithic period c BC. The Palace was constructed on the summit of the hill and surrounded by massive cyclopean walls in three stages c , , and BC respectively. A series of tholos tombs were built on the southern and south-western slopes of the hill during the Mycenaean Period - the so- called Tomb of Aegisthos c BC , the Lion Tholos Tomb c BC , the Tomb of Clytemnestra c BC , culminating in the Treasury of Atreus, at some distance from the others. The Palace abandoned at the end of the 12th century BC was and a number of buildings were damaged by fire.
The site was re-occupied briefly in the Hellenistic period, when another temple was built and a theatre constructed over the Tomb of Clytemnestra. The level of this area was built up in the Middle Bronze Age BC to accommodate new buildings. Following earthquake and fire damage, the site was reconstructed, the new defences enclosing an area of 20ha; the extra-mural settlement covered more than 25ha.
Delos According to Greek mythology, Apollo was born on this tiny island in the Cyclades archipelago. Apollo's sanctuary attracted pilgrims from all over Greece and Delos was a prosperous trading port. The island bears traces of the succeeding civilizations in the Aegean world, from the 3rd millennium B. The archaeological site is exceptionally extensive and rich and conveys the image of a great cosmopolitan Mediterranean port.
Long Description The island of Delos bears unique witness to the civilizations of the Aegean world in the 3rd millennium BC. During the palaeo-Christian era, it was the seat of the bishopric of the Cyclades which ruled over the islands of Mykonos, Syros, Seriphos, Kythnos and Keos. The feast of the Delians, which was celebrated every four years in May until BC, included gymnastic, equestrian, and musical competitions, dances, theatrical productions, and banquets. It was one of the major events in the Greek world. Delos is a minuscule island stretching only 5 km north to south and a scant 1.
It was here, that Apollo, son of Zeus and Leto, was born: like Delphi, Delos is the major sanctuary dedicated to Apollo, the Titan god par excellence, one of the most important in the Hellenic pantheon. On the island, which had already been the site of earlier human settlements sparse during the Neolithic age, more dense during the Mycenaean period , everything revolved around the sanctuary of Apollo, the seat of the Ionian Amphictyonia.
The Naxians, the Parians, and the Athenians disputed the site, with the last-named triumphing under Pisistratus c. They ordered the first purification of the place. In , the treasure of the Delian Confederacy, which replaced the Amphictyonia, was moved to Athens. In a second purification decree forbade being born or dying at Delos.
Pregnant women and terminally ill persons were transported to the island of Rheneia. The decision, motivated by religious reasons, was not without political considerations. In BC in a move to strengthen Athenian domination, the Delians were deported en masse. Except for some short reprieves and truces, their exile lasted until , when Delos regained its independence in principle and again became the centre of an island confederation that was tolerated and more or less controlled by the Lagides of Egypt and later by the Macedonians.
It became a very important cosmopolitan Mediterranean port ,reaching outstanding levels during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, when the average population is estimated to have been 25, In BC the Delians were again ousted, this time by the Roman Senate, which wished to supplant trade at Rhodes by making Delos a free port. It was a landmark decision that signalled the end of a period dominated by religious and political considerations and the beginning of a phase of economic expansion as had presaged the extent of diplomatic and commercial relations reflected in the honorific decrees of the late 3rd century BC in favour of the rich foreign benefactors of the sanctuary.
The great era of maritime trade ended only in 69 BC with the sacking of the island by Athenodoros, the last of a series of disastrous events. Abandoned in the 6th century, captured successively by Byzantines , Slavs , Saracens , Venetians, the Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem, and the Ottoman Turks, Delos was turned into a quarry site. The columns of its temples were consumed by the lime kilns, the walls of its houses left in ruins. Today the island's landscape consists solely of ruins unearthed systematically since On an archaeological site estimated at 95 ha, 25 ha have been excavated.
The principal zones are the north-east coastal plain Sanctuary of Apollo, Agora of the Compitaliasts, Agora of the Delians ; the Sacred Lake region Agora of Theophrastos, Agora of the Italians, the renowned Terrace of Lions, the Institution of the Poseidoniasts of Berytos Beirut ; the Mount Kynthos area Terrace of the Sanctuaries of the Foreign Gods, Heraion ; and the theatre quarter, whose poignant ruins have been overrun by vegetation. The island of Delos is among the first important Greek sites in the Aegean world to have captured the attention of archaeologists. Delos had considerable influence on the development of architecture and monumental arts during the Graeco-Roman period; this influence was matched later by the important role it has played since the 15th century in furthering our knowledge of ancient Greek art from a widely renowned site It subsequently came under Turkish and Italian rule.
In the Lower Town, Gothic architecture coexists with mosques, public baths and other buildings dating from the Ottoman period. Long Description Rhodes is an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble illustrating the significant period of history in which a military hospital order founded during the Crusades survived in the eastern Mediterranean area in a context characterized by an obsessive fear of siege. The fortifications of Rhodes, a 'Frankish' town long considered to be impregnable, exerted an influence throughout the eastern Mediterranean basin at the end of the Middle Ages.
With its Frankish and Ottoman buildings the old town of Rhodes is an important ensemble of traditional human settlement, characterized by successive and complex phenomena of acculturation. Contact with the traditions of the Dodecanese changed the forms of Gothic architecture, and building after combined vernacular forms resulting from the meeting of two worlds with decorative elements of Ottoman origin.
All the built-up elements dating before have become vulnerable because of the evolution in living conditions and they must be protected as much as the great religious, civil and military monuments, the churches, monasteries, mosques, baths, palaces, forts, gates and ramparts. They proceeded to transform the island capital into a fortified city able to withstand sieges as terrible as those led by the Sultan of Egypt in and Mehmet II in An anachronic vestige of the Crusades, Rhodes finally fell in after a six-month siege carried out by Suleyman II, heading forces reportedly numbering , men.
The medieval city is located within a wall 4 km long. It is divided according to the Western classical style, with the high town to the north and the lower town south- south-west. Originally separated from the town by a fortified wall, the high town Collachium was entirely built by the Knights Hospitallers who, following the dissolution of the Templars in , became the strongest military order in all Christendom.
The order was organized into seven 'Tongues', each having its own seat. The inns of the Tongues of Italy, France, Spain and Provence lined both sides of the principal east-west axis, the famous Street of the Knights, one of the finest testimonies to Gothic urbanism. Somewhat removed to the north, close to the site of the Knights' first hospice, stands the Inn of Auvergne, whose facade bears the arms of Guy de Blanchefort, Grand Master from to The original hospice was replaced in the 15th century by the Great Hospital, built between and , on the south side of the Street of the Knights; today the building is used as the archaeological museum.
At the far eastern end of the Street of the Knights, built against the wall, is St Mary's Church, which the Knights transformed into a cathedral in the 15th century. The lower town is almost as dense with monuments as the Collachium. In , with a population of 5,, it was replete with churches, some of Byzantine construction. Throughout the years, the number of palaces and charitable foundations multiplied in the south-south-east area: the Court of Commerce, the Archbishop's Palace, the Hospice of St Catherine, and others. Artillery firing posts were the final features to be added.
At the beginning of the 16th century, in the section of the Amboise Gate, which was built on the north-western angle in , the curtain wall was 12 m thick with a 4 m high parapet pierced with gun holes. Monasteries of Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios Although geographically distant from each other, these three monasteries the first is in Attica, near Athens, the second in Phocida near Delphi, and the third on an island in the Aegean Sea, near Asia Minor belong to the same typological series and share the same aesthetic characteristics.
The churches are built on a cross-in-square plan with a large dome supported by squinches defining an octagonal space. In the 11th and 12th centuries they were decorated with superb marble works as well as mosaics on a gold background, all characteristic of the 'second golden age of Byzantine art'. Long Description Although geographically distant from each other Daphni is located in Attica, 11 km from Athens; Hossios Luckas in Phocis, 67 km from the capital, and Nea Moni in the centre of the island of Chios , the three properties belong to the same typological series and share the same aesthetic characteristics.
These three monasteries are outstanding examples of a type of construction characteristic of the middle period of Byzantine religious architecture. Nea Moni illustrates the simplest expression, an octagonal church with no added spaces. Hossios Luckas and Daphni are more complex: they have a central octagonal space surrounded by a series of bays that form a square.
This more elaborate structure defines a hierarchy of volumes and functions and permits the implementation of an extensive iconographic and decorative plan. The Monastery of Daphni, located on the ancient sacred road from Athens to Eleusis, replaced a temple dedicated to Apollo Daphneios which had been destroyed in AD. In the 5th century a basilica was built adjoining a wall that had been restored and completed under the reign of Justinian It formed a square enceinte, 97 m on a side; a large part of the north wall, originally 8 m high, survives.
This first monastery, discovered through a series of archaeological remains, was abandoned during the Slav invasions in the 7th and 8th centuries. It was not until , when the Byzantine Empire was at its apogee under Alexis I Comnenus, that it rose out of its ruins. The church was built at that time. It had a narthex, to which a two-storey exonarthex was added a short time later.
Other monastic buildings such as the refectory, cells and a well were built during the same building campaign and the church was sumptuously decorated with mosaics portraying the Dormition of the Virgin Mary. In the monastery was sacked by Frankish crusaders. They built a cloister and remodelled the exonarthex and the enceinte wall but without altering the mosaics. Deconsecrated in , the monastery has been undergoing restoration work since The Monastery of Hossios Luckas is 37 km from Delphi on the western slope of the Helicon: here a hermit named Lukas the Stiriote made his home in among the ruins of a temple dedicated to Demeter.
The holy man died in A work on his life mentions a primitive church dedicated to St Barbara. In the latter half of the 10th century, construction on another church for pilgrims was begun. The topography of the vast polygonal enclosure of the monastery, which extends haphazardly on an east- west axis, still bears traces of successive additions and testifies to the enduring success of the cult to St Luke of Phocis.
The immense central volume of the dome, 9 m in diameter, which rests on a drum pierced with sixteen windows, is supported on three sides by groin-vaulted bays. The bema and the apse define the cross-in-square plan of the church, which is one of the most perfect creations of Byzantine architecture. The church is filled with iconographic treasures of a magnitude and coherence rarely equalled.
Its complex, compartmentalized plan is unified into a harmonious and luxurious whole by the rich decor of mosaics, frescoes, and marble slabs. The construction of the monastery of Nea Moni of Chios is fully documented as it was linked to a major event in Byzantine history. Constantine the Gladiator, a nobleman living in exile, was told by two monks of Chios, Nicetas and John, that he would become Emperor.
When Constantine Monomachos married the twice-widowed year-old Empress Zoe in , thus becoming Basileus, he remembered the prediction. In he founded the monastery, choosing as its site a valley on Chios on the slopes of Mount Aetos and bestowing it with possessions and privileges. The dome, approximately 7 m in diameter, has no lateral bays but is placed between a triconch sanctuary and a narthex preceded by an exonarthex with lateral absides.
The fairly rustic architectural design is carried over into in the more primitive style of the mosaics, which have a slightly Oriental flavour. The three forts of the town, designed by renowned Venetian engineers, were used for four centuries to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire. In the course of time, the forts were repaired and partly rebuilt several times, more recently under British rule in the 19th century.
The mainly neoclassical housing stock of the Old Town is partly from the Venetian period, partly of later construction, notably the 19th century. Outstanding Universal Value The ensemble of the fortifications and the Old Town of Corfu is located in a strategic location at the entrance to the Adriatic Sea. Historically, its roots go back to the 8th century BC and to the Byzantine period.
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It has thus been subject to various influences and a mix of different peoples. From the 15th century, Corfu was under Venetian rule for some four centuries, then passing to French, British and Greek governments. At various occasions, it had to defend the Venetian maritime empire against the Ottoman army. Corfu was a well thought of example of fortification engineering, designed by the architect Sanmicheli, and it proved its worth through practical warfare. Corfu has its specific identity, which is reflected in the design of its system of fortification and in its neo-classical building stock.
As such, it can be placed alongside other major Mediterranean fortified port cities. Criterion iv : The urban and port ensemble of Corfu, dominated by its fortresses of Venetian origin, constitutes an architectural example of outstanding universal value in both its authenticity and its integrity. The overall form of the fortifications has been retained and displays traces of Venetian occupation, including the Old Citadel and the New Fort, but primarily interventions from the British period.
The present form of the ensemble results from the works in the 19th and 20th centuries. The authenticity and integrity of the urban fabric are primarily those of a neo-classical town. The responsibility for protection is shared by several institutions and relevant decrees. A buffer zone has been established. The proactive policies of restoration and enhancement of the fortifications and of the citadel have resulted in a generally acceptable state of conservation. Many works however have still to be completed or started. A management plan has been prepared.
An urban action plan, which is in line with the management plan of the nominated property, has just been adopted for the period The town became a trading post on the way to Sicily and founded further colonies in Illyria and Epirus. The coast of Epirus and Corfu itself came under the sway of the Roman Republic BCE and served as the jumping-off point for Rome's expansion into the east. Corfu fell to the lot of the Eastern Empire at the time of the division in and entered a long period of unsettled fortunes, beginning with the invasion of the Goths The population gradually abandoned the old town and moved to the peninsula surmounted by two peaks the korifi where the ancient citadel now stands.
The Venetians, who were beginning to play a more decisive role in the southern Adriatic, came to the aid of a failing Byzantium, thereby conveniently defending their own trade with Constantinople against the Norman prince Robert Guiscard. Corfu was taken by the Normans in and returned to the Byzantine Empire in Following the Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders in , the Byzantine Empire was broken up and, in return for their military support, the Venetians obtained all the naval bases they needed to control the Aegean and the Ionian Seas, including Corfu, which they occupied briefly from to For the next half-century, the island fell under the sway of the Despots of Epirus and then that of the Angevins of Naples , who used it to further their policies against both the Byzantine Empire now re-established in Constantinople and the Republic of Venice.
The tiny medieval town grew up between the two fortified peaks, the Byzantine Castel da Mare and the Angevin Castel di Terra, in the shelter of a defensive wall fortified with towers. Writings from the first half of the 13th century tell of a separation of administrative and religious powers between the inhabitants of the citadel and those of the outlying parts of the town occupying what is now the Spianada.
In order to assert its naval and commercial power in the Southern Adriatic, the Republic of Venice took advantage of the internal conflicts raging in the Kingdom of Naples to take control of Corfu Alongside Negropont Chalcis , Crete, and Modon Methoni , it would form one of the bases from which to counter the Ottoman maritime offensive and serve as a revictualling station for ships en route to Romania and the Black Sea. The ongoing work on defining, improving, and expanding the medieval fortified perimeter reflects the economic and strategic role of Corfu during the four centuries of Venetian occupation.
In the early 15th century activity concentrated on the medieval town, with the development of harbour facilities docks, quays and arsenals and continued with the renovation of the defence works. Early in the following century a canal was dug, cutting off the medieval town from its suburbs.
Following the siege of the town by the Turks in and the burning of the suburbs, a new programme of works was launched to isolate the citadel further and strengthen its defences. The strip of land now the Spianada cleared in was widened by demolishing houses facing the citadel walls, two new bastions were raised on the banks of the canal, the elevation of the perimeter walls was lowered, and the two castelli were replaced by new structures.
The work, based on plans drawn by Veronese architect Michele Sanmicheli , were completed in , bringing the town's defences up to date with the rapid progress made in artillery in recent decades. Yet another siege by the Turks in decided the Venetians to embark on a vast project covering the medieval town, its suburbs, the harbour, and all the military buildings Ferrante Vitelli, architect to the Duke of Savoy, sited a fort the New Fort on the low hill of St Mark to the west of the old town to command the surrounding land and at sea, and also the 24 suburbs enclosed by a ditched wall with bastions and four gates.
More buildings, both military and civil, were erected and the 15th century Mandraki harbour was restructured and enlarged. At the same time, the medieval town was converted to more specifically military uses the cathedral was transferred to the new town in the 17th century to become the Old Citadel. Between and the system of defences was further strengthened to the west by a second wall, the work of military engineer Filippo Vernada. In the Turks sought to reconquer Morea the Peloponnese but Venetian resistance hardened when the Turkish forces headed towards Corfu.
The support of Christian naval fleets and an Austrian victory in Hungary in helped to save the town. The commander of the Venetian forces on Corfu, Giovanni Maria von Schulenburg, was inspired by the designs of Filippo Vernada to put the final touches to this great fortified ensemble. The outer western defences were reinforced by a complex system of outworks on the heights of two mountains, Abraham and Salvatore, and on the intermediate fort of San Rocco The treaty of Campo Formio marked the end of the Republic of Venice and saw Corfu come under French control until France withdrew before the Russian-Turkish alliance that founded the State of the Ionian Islands, of which Corfu would become the capital The redrawing of territorial boundaries in Europe after the fall of Napoleon made Corfu, after a brief interlude of renewed French control , a British protectorate for the next half-century Under the governance of the British High Commissioner Sir Thomas Maitland , development activity concentrated on the Spianada; his successor, Sir Frederic Adam , turned his attention towards public works building an aqueduct, restructuring the Old Citadel and adding new military buildings at the expense of the Venetian buildings, reconstruction and raising of the town's dwellings and the reorganisation of the educational system the new Ionian Academy was opened in , contributing to the upsurge in intellectual interests sparked during the French occupation.
At the same time, the British began demolishing the outer fortifications on the western edge of the town and planning residential areas outside the defensive walls. In the island was attached to the Kingdom of the Hellenes. The fortresses were disarmed and several sections of the perimeter wall and the defences were gradually demolished. The island became a favoured holiday destination for the aristocracy of Europe.
The Old Town was badly damaged by bombing in Added to the loss of life was the destruction of many houses and public buildings the Ionian Parliament, the theatre, and the library , fourteen churches, and a number of buildings in the Old Citadel. In recent decades the gradual growth of the new town has accelerated with the expansion of tourism. Among its Christian monuments are fine churches, some built on the Greek cross plan and others on the three-nave basilica plan.
Constructed over a long period, from the 4th to the 15th century, they constitute a diachronic typological series, which had considerable influence in the Byzantine world. The mosaics of the rotunda, St Demetrius and St David are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art. Long Description The Christian monuments of Thessaloniki are outstanding examples of churches built according to central, basilical and intermediary plans from the 4th to the 15th centuries.
For this reason, they constitute a series which is a typological point of reference. The influence of the Thessalonikian churches on the development of the monumental arts was considerable, first in the Byzantine and later the Serbian world, whether in the early Christian period of the high Middle Ages or the Palaeologan Renaissance.
Thessaloniki was founded in BC by Cassandros, who named it after his wife Thessaloniki, just a short time after the new cities of Alexander. Following the Roman conquest of Macedonia, it became one of the Empire's provincial capitals. A cosmopolitan and prosperous seaport, the city grew in commercial and strategic importance during the Roman period and was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity. St Paul first travelled there in AD 50, and he returned in 56 to visit the church he had founded and for which he exhibited great concern in his Epistles.
Imperial splendor and the changing fortunes of the Thessalonikian church were inextricably linked during the early centuries of Christianity. It was during the period that the palatial complex of Galerius was being built that St Demetrius was martyred c. Some time later the rotunda, which Galerius had probably planned as his mausoleum, was taken over by the Christians who converted it to a church dedicated to St George.
North of the Forum, on the ruins of the thermae baths where tradition has it that St Demetrius was imprisoned and tortured, they built the Basilica of St Demetrius. Rebuilt in by the eparch Leontius and enlarged in according to a grandiose plan that included five naves, the church, despite having been ravaged by fire in , remains one of the most notable monuments of the early Christian era. Other churches of archaeological interest were built during the Byzantine period. These include the Basilica of the Virgin, called Acheiropoietos, after , St David's late 5th or early 6th centuries , and particularly St Sophia 8th century , which is a harmonious blend of the Greek cross plan and a three-nave basilica plan.
After the Latin conquest in it became the Cathedral of Thessaloniki. When the Ottomans gained control of the city in , most of the churches, new or old, were converted to mosques, and other Islamic sanctuaries were built Hamza Bey Cami in , Alaca Imaret in Under Ottoman rule , Thessaloniki regained the status of major cosmopolitan city it had enjoyed during the early Christian era.
This was particularly due to the arrival in of 20, Jews driven from Spain by the Edict of Alhambra. Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos Many civilizations have inhabited this small Aegean island, near Asia Minor, since the 3rd millennium B. The remains of Pythagoreion, an ancient fortified port with Greek and Roman monuments and a spectacular tunnel-aqueduct, as well as the Heraion Temple of the Samian Hera can still be seen.
Long Description Samos was the leading maritime and mercantile power in the Greek world in the 6th century BC, and this importance is reflected in the extent and richness of the archaeological remains, which are largely untouched by subsequent developmentThe site is an area on the north-east coast of the island that is clearly defined by the surrounding mountains. It consists of the ancient city Pythagoreion and the classical Temple of Hera Heraion.
Pythagoreion is a classic site from the period of Greek colonization, situated round a good natural harbour on a peninsula that is protected by steep mountains behind it. It also had the advantage of being very close to the mainland of Asia Minor. The earliest finds are pre-classical; dating back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, but the main settlement began in the 16th century BC, when it was colonized by Minoans from Crete, later to be supplanted by Mycenaeans. The ancestors of the classical Samians arrived from the Epidauros region in the 11th century BC, following the turmoil of the Trojan War.
By the 6th century BC, Samos had become a major nautical power in the eastern Mediterranean, with close trade links with Asia Minor and the Greek mainland. It was strong enough to establish trading colonies on the coast of Ionia, in Thrace, and even in the western Mediterranean. Samian political influence waned after the island was conquered by the Persians at the end of the 6th century BC, but it continued to be an important mercantile city throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
The city was sacked by Germanic peoples in the 3rd century AD and never properly recovered thereafter. Samos alternated between Byzantine, Turkish, and Venetian rule for many centuries, not being fully united with Greece until The fortifications round the ancient town date back to the classical period, with Hellenistic additions.
Excavations over many years have revealed a great deal of the street plan of the ancient city, together with its aqueduct, sewage system, public buildings, sanctuaries and temples, agora, public baths Roman , stadium and town houses Roman and Hellenistic. One of the most famous features is the Eupalineio, a tunnel running for 1, m through the mountainside to bring water to the city, the work of Eupalinos of Megara in the 6th century BC.
The great Temple of Hera Heraion had its origins in the 8th century BC, when it was the first Greek temple to be surrounded by a peristyle of columns; its 7th-century successor was also innovatory in that it was the first temple to have a double row of columns across the front. These were both surpassed by the temple begun around BC by Rhoecus and Theodorus, who built a colossal structure measuring some 45 m by 80 m, the earliest in the new Ionic order.
It was supported by at least columns, whose moulded bases were turned on a lathe designed by Theodorus. Thirty years later this temple was destroyed in a Persian raid and a replacement was planned on an even vaster scale, but it was never to be completed. The complex around the Heraion includes altars, smaller temples, stoas, and statue bases, all located inside the sanctuary, along with the remains of a 5th-century Christian basilica.
The temple is fundamental to an understanding of classical architecture. The stylistic and structural innovations in each of its successive phases strongly influenced the design of temples and public buildings throughout the Greek world. The technological mastery of the Eupalineio similarly served as a model for engineering and public works. Historical Description The nomination is for an area on the NE coast of the island that is clearly defined by the surrounding mountains.
It consists of the ancient city Pythagoreion and the classical temple of Hera Heraion. The earliest finds are pre-classical, dating back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, but the main settlement began in the 16th century BC, when it was colonized by Minoans from Crete, later to be supplanted by Mycenaeans. By the 6th century BC Samos had become a major nautical power in the eastern Mediterranean, with close trade links with Asia Minor and the Greek mainland.
The city was sacked by Germanie peoples in the 3rd century AD and never properly recovered thereafter. Excavations over many years have revealed a great deal of the street plan of the ancient city, together with its aqueduct, sewage system, public buildings, sanctuaries and temples, agora market place , public baths Roman , stadium, and town houses Roman and Hellenistic. One of the most dramatic and famous features is the Eupalineio, a tunnel running for m through the mountainside to bring water to the city, the work of Eupalinos of Megara in the 6th century BC.
It is described by one authority as "a miracle of ancient surveying [which] was begun at both ends running level, and the miners met in the middle with only the smallest of errors. The great Temple of Hera, or Heraion, had its origins in the 8th century BC, when it was the first Greek temple to be surrounded by a peristyle of columns; its 7th century successor was also innovatory in that it was the first temple to have a double row of columns across the front.
But these were surpassed by the temple begun around BC by Rhoecus and Theodorus, who built a colossal structure measuring sorne 45 m by 80 m. The complex around the Heraion includes altars, smaller temples, stoas, and statue bases, all located inside the sanctuary, along with the remains of a 5th century Christian basilica. Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed out of a much earlier cult of Apollo Maleatas , during the 6th century BC at the latest, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus.